Electrical motors are those machines that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. These motors are often found in residential apartments and when you look at them you might wonder which parts are there inside. What kind of electric motor parts are inside this motor system that makes it function so smoothly? You might think that this topic is very technical and complicated because of the terminologies being used here. But no! It is a simple topic that you are definitely going to enjoy. So let’s have some scientific fun with the electric motor parts!
1. What is Motor Control System?
The motor control system is a motor system that helps in the easy flow of energy. It is a set of devices that help in regulating the manner in which a motor works. They can be controlled in a manual, remote, or automatic manner. The devices are connected to each other and form a network that allows an easy and smooth flow of current from the beginning to the end of the circuit. (See What are Some Simple Machines in your House?)
2. What is Inside a Motor?By author Mika Baumeister on Unsplash
A motor consists of some parts that help in its working. These are electric motor parts connected to each other that allow proper working and flow of current in the motor. Some of the important electric motor parts are:
- Armature or rotor
- Field magnet
- DC power supply
3. What are the Basic Components of an Electric Motor?
Now that we know what is a motor control system, let us understand its basic components in detail. The function of an electric motor is to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. A very common household example of an electric motor is the kitchen mixer. The basic components of an electric motor are the following:
- A power supply: A DC power source is usually used in a simple motor. It supplies power to field coils or motor armature.
- Field Magnet: When Fleming’s left-hand rule is applied, a field magnet produces a torque on the rotating armature coil.
- An Armature or rotor: It provides mechanical support and holds the armature coil in place.
- Commutator: Commutator has a stationary circuit with a rotating interface of the armature coil. It flips the electrical field with the brushes.
- Brushes: It is a device that conducts current between stationary and rotating parts, usually the rotating shaft.
- Armature coil: It helps the motor to run.
4. What are 7 Electric Motor Parts?
A motor is a machine with many electric motor parts that help in its smooth functioning. Even without a single part, the electric motor would not work. Here are the important 7 electric motor parts that are essential for any motor to work.
- Stator: A stator is a static part of an electric motor. It contains field windings and receives the supply. Stators help in creating motion and act as field magnets that interact with rotors. It provides a magnetic field for rotating armature.
- Rotor: A rotor is a rotating part of an electrical motor. It creates the mechanical rotations of the unit. The rotating magnetic field creates a transformer action that gets induced in the rotor.
- Yoke: A yoke is a magnetic frame made up of cast iron that works as a protector. The inner parts of the motor remain safe and sound because of this cover. It houses magnetic poles and field windings of the DC motor.
- Field windings: Field windings are made with copper wire. The slots that are carried by the Pole Shoes, are circles around by field windings. An electromagnet is formed by field windings that are capable of producing field flux.
- Armature windings: Armature windings are an important part of a motor. It has two constructions: Lap Winding and Wave Winding and the difference between them is the number of parallel paths. Armature windings alter the magnetic field in the path that it rotates as it is attached to rotors.
- DC motor commutator: Commutator is a major motor part. It is a split ring made up of copper segments. The interaction of the two magnetic fields of a rotating armature and a fixed stator defines the operating system of DCs. The commutator is connected to the armature.
- Brushes: The brushes in a motor are made up of carbon or graphite structures. The static electrical circuit gets connected to the rotor by brushes that act as a bridge.
5. What are the Four Parts of a Motor Circuit?By author Mika Baumeister on Unsplash
After learning about the 7 electrical motor parts, let us take a look at the 4 parts that are required for its functioning. There 4 basic parts of a motor circuit that are important for the functioning of the motor irrespective of its size or use are:
- An energy source (AC or DC): An energy source is a major component in an electrical motor circuit. It is also referred to as the power source that provides the energy for the circuit to get activated. This energy comes in the form of voltage and current that gets the device activated.
- A conductor: A conductor is a wiring or wire that helps in the flow of current. It forms a passage for the easy flow of current from the beginning to the end of the circuit. It interconnects all the parts of the circuit and provides energy to each component.
- Controller: There has to be a controller that can start and break the flow of energy on the circuit. The switch is the controller in a motor circuit. It helps in easy and safe opening and closing of the circuit and flow of energy.
- Electrical load: An electrical load is a device that is connected to the circuit. All other parts work in coordination for this device to get activated. It gets activated when it receives the flow of electricity and it gets energized. The load is the amount of electrical energy used by the device to do its task.
6. What are 3 Types of Motor Controls?
Motor controls are the speed, torque, and position outputs and the devices that control these factors are known as motor controllers or drives. A motor controller helps in regulating the manner in which the motor works. The 3 types of motor controls are:
- AC: AC motor controllers have the purpose of regulating the output speed and torque. They do this by adjusting the frequency of the power to the motor and modifying the input power to the motor, primarily used in devices like fans, blowers, etc.
- DC: DC motor controller is an electrical device that adjusts the constant or alternating current through which it modifies the input power. The constant or alternating current is sourced to the direct current output of varying pulse duration or frequency.
- Servo: A servomotor is an electronic device. It modifies the input power by adjusting the constant or alternating current source. The controller is commonly integrated with the drive circuits that help in supplying the control signals to the drive. They can also be termed servo motor amplifiers.
7. What are 3 Types of Electrical Circuits?Photo by Adi Goldstein on Unsplash
After learning about the parts of a motor, let us also get an insight into the types of electrical circuits. The circuits in the motor system are of many types. The 3 main types of an electrical circuit are:
- Series circuit: In a series circuit, the devices are connected using the series connection, which means they are connected end-to-end on a single path. It comprises an electrical path from where the whole current flows through each component.
- Parallel circuit: Parallel electrical circuit comprises two or more branches for the current to flow. When the current flows through it, it gets divided and only a part of it flows through any branch. The voltage or potential difference here, across each branch, remains the same but the currents may vary.
- Closed circuit: The closed circuit is a complete electrical circuit that allows energy to flow. In closed circuits, energy can flow without any disruption. The energy is able to reach the end point without any obstacles. The continuity of the circuit remains intact unlike in an open circuit.
8. What is a Stator in a Motor?
The electromagnetic circuits in motors have a stationary component called the stator. Stators can act as field magnets that interact with the rotor for the creation of motion. These electric motor parts may also act as armatures that work with moving field coils on the rotor. The stator is useful to convert the rotating magnetic field to electric current in a generator. (See Who Discovered Electricity?)
9. What is Rotor in Motor?
As the name suggests, a rotor is a rotating part of an electrical machine. It has the current induced in it by transformer action from the rotating magnetic field. A rotor is present in the electric motor, electric generator, or alternator. In electromagnetic systems, it is a moving component. Rotors are present in the alternators that have permanent magnets which generate alternating current (AC) by moving around the stator’s iron plates. The existing motion is required for the rotor to function, so it only works with the stator when the engine or turbine is already running to provide a charge. (See Which has more power aa or aaa batteries?)
10. What is Armature in Electric Motor?
The armature is one of the parts of the motor circuit. It is a device that helps in passing the electric current for generating torque. An armature in an electric motor is a device through which an electric current is passed for generating a rotor (torque). The current which passes through the rotor is also called the armature current. It is an important part of an electric motor which has a twofold role.
Another role of an armature is to generate an electromotive force (EMF). An armature is mounted on bearings in such a way that it is free to rotate and the magnetic field that is produced by permanent magnets or current passing through coils of wire, is where the armature is mounted. This area is known as the field coils.
See, I told you it’s not that difficult! The motor control system and the electric motor parts are very important for any device to work. Without this system, it is not going to get activated. From the wiring in your home to the basic kitchen mixer, everything is a part of the motor control system. Interesting, isn’t it? I hope now you have got an idea why these electric motor parts are so important! (See How Is Energy Measured?)