Springs are a very common mechanical part that we use in everyday life. It makes the objects and instruments very easy to operate. From small household objects to large machinery, spring is used in numerous things. There are many types of springs used for different purposes and this article is going to talk about them in detail. You will get to know about the spiral spring experiment in physics along with Hooke’s Law. Read this article till the end to know more!
1. What are Applications of Spring?
Springs are used in multiple objects of daily life. They make things easier to operate and work upon. Here are some applications of spring mentioned below:
- Springs are used to applying force and control motion. For example, brakes and clutches.
- They are used to measure forces. For example, the use of spring balance.
- Springs are also used to store energy. For example, the use of springs in toys and watches.
- They are used to reduce the effect of vibrations and shocks in vehicles and machine foundations.
- They are used to absorb or control energy to the external load. For example, railway buffers.
- Springs are also used to provide clamping force in fixtures and jigs.
2. What are the Types of Springs?
This point covers some important types of springs which are commonly used.
A. Helical spring
This is the most common type of spring. This spring is wrapped in a form of a thread and resembles it. This spring is used to carry extension, torque, and compression. According to loading conditions, helical springs can be classified into 4 types:
- Compression helical springs: These are open-coil helical springs. It resists push forces and displays resistance to linear compressive forces.
- Spiral spring: This type of spring releases a constant amount of force. Also known as clock springs, they are used in machines that are rotated numerous times.
- Tension helical spring: It is the opposite of compression spring. For the extension of the spring, pull force is applied.
- Torsion spring: This spring has the load applied in the form of torque or twisting force. They hold and release angular energy.
B. Leaf spring
Leaf springs are one of the oldest forms of springs. They are used in vehicle suspensions. They are long and have a flat-slender arc shape.
C. Belleville spring
Belleville spring is mainly coin shaped with a hole in the center. These springs are loaded to their axis dynamically or statically. Although they require very less space for installation, they can bear a large amount of load.
D. Volute and conical spring
These springs have a conical shape and are also known as tapered springs. These springs reduce the solid height and provide stability.
3. What are Spiral Springs Made of?
Spiral springs are made of different forms and alloys of steel. The metal is made into rectangular strips that have to be wound into a flat spiral. Other popular alloys used to make spiral springs are high-carbon, oil-tempered low-carbon, chrome vanadium, and chrome silicon. Here, carbon steel and stainless steel are most commonly preferred because of their qualities. In the upcoming segments, you will learn about the spiral spring experiment in physics. (See What is the Factor that Determines the Inertia of an Object?)
4. What Spiral Spring is Used for?
Spiral spring is used for a number of purposes. They are used where the stored energy is required. For smaller angles of rotation, they are used as balancing springs. The stored energy in the spring is used as the counterbalance. Some of the areas where they are mainly used are:
- Automatic weapons
- Computer keyboards
- Door handles
5. What is the Spiral Spring Experiment in Physics?
The spiral spring experiment in physics is used to determine the spring constant and the effective mass of the spring. It is done to see that the time of the vertical oscillation depends upon the load. (See Magnetic Compass is used to Find What?)
6. How do You do the Spiral Spring Experiment?
The spiral spring experiment in physics is an important experiment. Here is a way to perform this experiment error-free.
Materials required: Spiral spring, meter rule, 2 stands with clamps, scale pan with attached pointer, stopwatch, assorted masses, triple beam balance, graph paper
- First, measure the mass of the scale pan and the attached pointer and record it. In one stand, attach the pan and pointer, and in the other, place the meter rule such that the end of the pointer moves lightly over it. This is called the zero position. Read and record it.
- Put 5g in the pan. Record the total load and the pointer position. This load should include the mass of the pan and the pointer.
- After this, put 10g more and record the same as above. Continue to add 10g increments of mass until it reaches 95g. Make the recordings every time.
- After reaching 95g, start removing 10g at a time and make the recordings. By doing this, you will get two recordings at every load, except for 95g.
- After doing all the recordings, find the total mean extension for every load by subtracting the zero position from the average pointer reading of each load.
- Put 50g in the scale pan. By lifting it slightly above the equilibrium position, set the scale pan in vertical oscillation and then let it go quickly. Find the periodic time, T, by timing 20 complete oscillations. Here, T = time for 20 oscillations/20.
- Repeat this process with 100, 150, 200, and 250g. Do not forget to include the mass of the pan and pointer in your tabulation.
7. What is the Principle of Helical Spring?
While explaining the spiral spring experiment in physics, you must know that the helical spring works on the principle of Hooke’s law. This principle states that stress applied within the limit of elasticity is directly proportional to the strain produced. When load F is attached to the free end of the spring, then the spring gets elongated through a distance l, which is the extension produced. Hooke’s law states that the extension is directly proportional to the load. It is represented as F = kl, where k is the constant of proportionality. It is also known as the force constant or the spring constant. (See What is the Relation between Pressure Force and Area?)
8. What is the Aim of Helical Spring Experiment?
The aim of the helical spring experiment is to find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting a graph between extension and load.
9. What is Hooke’s Law?
Hooke’s Law is the law of elasticity which was discovered by English scientist Robert Hooke in 1660. It states that within the elastic limit of the material, the strain of the material is proportional to the applied stress. When the elastic material is stretched, the molecules and atoms deform until the stress is applied. They come back to the initial state when the stress is removed. This law only applies to a perfectly elastic material and does not apply beyond the material’s elastic limit. It states that the restoring force is proportional to the displacement and hence, it is linear.
10. What is the Aim of Hooke’s Law?
Hooke’s Law states that the extension of an elastic material is directly proportional to the force applied. It happens when the elastic limit is not exceeded. The spiral spring experiment in physics is also done based on this law. It is done to study the relationship between the force and extension and see whether the elastic material obeys Hooke’s Law. It also governs the limits of the elasticity of an object. The purpose of Hooke’s law is to ensure that the components are able to withstand a pre-calculated level of force. (Also read How would You define the Principle of Moments Equation?)