Weathering and erosion of soil and rocks have evolved over years depending on many environmental factors making changes in the geographic patterns. Weathering of solutions is caused by the process of carbonation, which involves atmospheric carbon dioxide. Read the article to know about what is carbonation weathering, an example of carbonation weathering, and the difference between solution and carbonation.
1. What are 4 Types of Chemical Weathering?By Dexter Fernandes on Pexels
Chemical weathering can take many various forms, including hydration, hydrolysis, carbonation, oxidation, reduction, and chelation. When the water is a little bit acidic, several of these reactions take place more readily.
- Carbonation: Rain, which is naturally slightly acidic due to atmospheric carbon dioxide carbonates when it reacts with calcium carbonates, such as chalk or limestone. Calcium bicarbonate is created by the reaction.
- Hydration: An anhydrous mineral becomes hydrated when water reacts with it to form a new mineral. When a mineral’s crystalline structure is combined with water, a hydrate is created.
- Hydrolysis: The converse of hydration is hydrolysis, where water destroys a mineral’s chemical connections rather than forming a new mineral. It is a reaction to breakdown.
- Oxidation: When oxygen interacts with metal components in a rock, oxides are created. Rust is a simple illustration of this. Iron (steel) readily interacts with oxygen to produce a reddish-brown color.
2. What is Carbonation in Geography?
Another form of chemical weathering is carbonation. Water and carbon dioxide are combined during carbonation to create carbonic acid. The creation of caves depends on this kind of weathering. When carbon dioxide reacts, carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid are produced. Carbonation weathering is a process that results in solution weathering due to atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Rainwater decomposes or erodes rock when it comes into contact with it. It is the process of carbon dioxide dissolving in a liquid. For instance, flavored water is mixed with carbon dioxide under pressure to create carbonated water soft drinks that fizz.
Rain absorbs or combines with carbon dioxide as it moves through the atmosphere, weakening it into carbonic acid. This happens when sedimentary rock, such as limestone or chalk, comes into contact with slightly acidic (carbonic) rainwater or seawater and dissolves it. (See Nature and Scope of Physical Geography)
3. What causes Carbonation in Geography?
Rainwater decomposes or erodes rock when it comes into contact with it in the process of carbonation. This happens when carbonic (acidic) rainwater or seawater comes into touch with sedimentary rock such as limestone or chalk, causing the rock to dissolve. Rainwater and dissolved carbon dioxide combine to generate weak carbonic acid. The acidic water reacts with the calcium carbonate in the rocks, which dissolves and leaves calcium bicarbonate behind. (Also see What are Geologic Features?)
4. What is Carbonation Weathering?
The carbonation process, which uses atmospheric carbon dioxide, contributes to the weathering of solutions. Carbonation occurs when a weak carbonic acid, produced by the combination of rain and carbon dioxide, combines with calcium carbonate (the primary component of limestone) to produce calcium bicarbonate. Carbonic acid is produced during the carbonation process when water and carbon dioxide are mixed. This type of weathering is necessary for the formation of caves. As mentioned earlier, due to atmospheric carbon dioxide, a process known as carbonation weathering causes solution weathering. (See 3 Agents of Metamorphism)
5. What is an Example of Carbonation Weathering?
An example of carbonation weathering is the small amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolved by rain as it falls, creating a mild acid that can dissolve some minerals like limestone. (See What are Factors affecting Soil Weathering?)
6. Where does Carbonation Weathering happen?
Calcium bicarbonate is created through a chemical interaction between calcium carbonate and acidic water. This can dissolve in a solution. Warm and humid weather is ideal for carbonation weathering, mostly occurring in deep marine deposits. Also, check out Where is the Youngest and Oldest Crust?
7. Which Rocks are weathered by Carbonation?
Sedimentary rocks especially limestones are mostly affected by weathering. Must see What are the Different Layers of Rocks called?
8. Why is Carbonation greater in Cold Climates?By stein egil liland on Pexels
Water is necessary for carbonation, and the best environment for the reactions to take place is one with a relative humidity of between 50% and 70%. Concrete is less likely to carbonate when the relative humidity is below 40% since there isn’t enough water present to dissolve the carbon dioxide. More carbon dioxide can be absorbed by cold water than by warmer water. As a result, rainwater removes more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in colder climates. The carbonic acids that develop in warm regions are more powerful than those that do not. These higher acids may speed up the carbonation process. Therefore, carbonation is higher in cooler areas. (See What are the Uses of Rocks?)
9. What is the Difference between Solution and Carbonation?
When carbonation occurs, rainwater changes the calcium carbonate found in the rocks into calcium bicarbonate, which is soluble and is removed by the groundwater. Carbonation is a chemical reaction in which the primary reactant is carbon dioxide gas, which primarily produces different carbon substances such as carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acids.
As opposed to that, the solution is the process by which minerals in rocks dissolve in water. A solution is a mixture of two separate substances that can entirely or partially mix. Here, the occurrence of chemical reactions is optional and depends on the substances in the solution. This is the difference between solution and carbonation. (See What is the difference between Oceanic Crust and Continental Crust?)
10. How is Limestone eroded by Carbonation?Photo by Shvets Anna on Pexels
Limestone’s calcium carbonate will react with carbonic acid, which is created from rainwater and carbon dioxide, to create calcium bicarbonate. Since calcium bicarbonate is soluble in water, when carbonation takes place, the limestone is weathered. Any rock that contains primarily calcium carbonate is referred to as limestone, and there are various varieties.
However, coral reefs continue to build in shallow seas when carbonate rocks are submerged in seawater. When seawater dissolves compounds at high concentrations, marine limestone is formed. Coral, clams, and other sea organisms that employ the same compounds in their shells typically cover the top layer of the substance. Over time, the combination of those things fuses to form limestone. The limestone rock’s bottom portion is cracked while the limestone’s middle half continues to degrade. (See What are the Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks?)