Road Construction Process

What is the Road Construction Procedure? What are the Steps involved in Road Construction? What is Paving and its Types? What is Quality Control?
Road Construction Process

Roads are one of the most vital and useful ways of transportation in our daily lives and so the road construction process is something that is important for smooth and hassle-free travel. The question is, how are they built in the first place? What kind of materials are employed? What is the road construction process? This article will give you an answer to road construction procedure. Also, you will learn about road construction methods.

Road Construction Process

The road construction process is that which involves laying down soil stabilizers, asphalt, concrete, and other materials in a specific order. This is done to create a smooth or cleared surface on which vehicles can travel without bumps and obstructions. Depending on the measures and type of road, months or years of preparation may be required before work can begin. (Also read 8 Facts about Cracks in Sidewalk)

Road Construction Methods

As the road construction procedure is very complex, it depends on materials used, weather conditions, traffic, etc. Below are some basic steps of the road construction process.  (See 5 Types of Road Construction)

1. Planning

Road Construction Process 2

In any road construction process, this is the first phase.

  • It entails assessing current and future traffic patterns and doing a cost-benefit analysis to ensure that the route will meet the demand.
  • Layout drawings, funding, legal, and environmental difficulties are all worked out during this phase. This ensures that the construction goes off without a hitch, both financially and legally.  (See How to Become a Tower Crane Operator?)

2. Setting Out

Setting out refers to one of the most popular road construction methods of transferring designs from drawings to the ground. Must read how does a Water Wheel work?

  • It demarcates the site’s boundaries, institutions, and other structural elements. 
  • A series of boards are installed at spans along the road line at the construction site. A profile board with the right stature, known as a traveler, is conveyed to govern the uncovered levels.
  • The traveler is placed in the sight-line between two-level boards to ensure the level after the excavation. (See What is a Chuckwagon?)

3. Earthworks

This is effectively the most labor-intensive road construction process. It involves the deployment of a tractor shovel, grader, or bulldozer on location to eliminate the topsoil before evaluating the site to uncover the basic ground, regularly known as formation level. The soil underneath the formation level is known as sub-grade, and it needs to be tested for strength before leaving for excavation. (See How Cranes Work)

4. Paving

Road Construction Process 3

This kind of road construction begins after the sub-grade has been prepared and the drainage system has been installed. Depending on the specific requirements, paving might be rigid or flexible. (See What Causes Potholes?)

There are two types of paving, as discussed below:

  • Inflexible Paving: This consists of a significant built-up or unreinforced portion laid atop a thin granular foundation course. Because of the rigidity and strength of rigid pavements, piles and pressures can be dispersed over a large sub-grade area, reducing the projected effect. Inflexible pavements have a higher flexural strength, longer plan life, and lower maintenance costs.
  • Flexible Paving: Flexible pavements are constructed of a few layers of asphalt or bituminous material that sits on top of a prepared sub-grade and distributes all traffic loads evenly. When exposed to traffic loads, the entire structure will twist or redirect, making the name flexible. Flexible pavements are less expensive to raise and have a greater ability to grow and contract with temperature variations, so they don’t require extension joints. (See What Is the Average Garage Door Size?)

5. Quality Control

Before the construction is declared complete, several quality checks are undertaken once the road surface has been installed. This process includes evaluating drainage, reviewing levels, and ensuring that various areas of the roads are pleasant. Drivers will be able to use the roads if all the tests have been completed successfully. Most roads can last up to 40 years, with major upgrades occurring every ten years.  (See What is a Flight of Stairs?)

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