Your body is the most complex machine. God has created humans with such minute details that it is always outmatched any human-developed technology to compare with it. A cell is the smallest living unit that comprises an organism. How many types of cells are there that make up the human body? Even your blood is made up of different variants of cells. So, you might be wondering how many blood cells are in the human body and how many cells are in the human body at birth and at different life stages. Let us today take a tour of your building materials known as cells.
1. What is the Definition of Cell?
Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of life. A cell can survive on its own, or it can group together to form tissues, organs, and an organism. All living organisms are made up of cells, including multicellular organisms like humans, trees, animals, etc. Single-cell organisms are also known as microorganisms, as they are made up of one or more cells. They can be visible only under a microscope. Dead cells are replaced by new cells, and this cycle continues till the organism is alive. (Also read How Many Cells Are in the Human Body?)
2. What are the Parts of a Cell?
Though it is the smallest unit of the living world, it’s mainly made up of three parts: nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane.
- The nucleus is like the powerhouse of the cell. It is like the brain to the cell, and RNA develops in the nucleus. It is filled up with nucleolus along with DNA.
- The fluid inside the cell, known as cytoplasm, carries out various chemical reactions. The cytoplasm is also responsible for developing proteins.
- The cell membrane is a thin covering that surrounds the cell like a wall and controls the inflow and outflow of substances in a cell. (Also read What are the characteristics of an ectomorph body?)
There may not be an accurate number about how many types of cells are there, but all cells have the mentioned parts for sure. It also contains several other parts of the cell that are responsible for performing several functions. These parts include mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, cytoskeleton, and the Golgi bodies.
3. How many Types of Cells are There in The Human Body?
The human body is made up of trillions of cells. There are many reasons for how many types of cells are there to support your body in movement and balance. Similar types of cells combine to form a tissue that forms an organ in turn. Then, these organs help in the smooth functioning of the human body by working together in harmony with other organs. The primary 11 types of cells are mentioned below-
- Bone cells make up the major part of your skeletal system, and they combine to form connective tissues. These cells are further classified into three types. Osteocytes help in maintaining the balance of calcium and bone formation. Osteoclasts help the bones heal quickly by absorbing necessary nutrients and redeveloping them. Osteoblasts help in the mineralization of the bones. It produces an organic substance known as osteoid, which helps to mineralize the bones. (Also read Number of Bones in Human Body Male vs Female)
- Skin cells make up the entire covering of your body. The outermost layer is made up of closely packed flat squamous epithelial cells. This layer protects your inner body and is like a barrier for outer bacteria and germs.
- Endothelial cells comprise the inner lining of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. These cells create new blood vessels. Other functions carried out by these cells are regulating fluids’ movement in the blood, the movement of gases and macromolecules, and blood pressure.
- Cancer cells develop from continuous exposure to ultraviolet rays (UV Rays), chemicals, and radiation. These cells can result from genetic origin also. These cells can divide and spread fast. Unlike other cells, these cells destroy the body.
- Nerve cells are responsible for the most critical work. It is responsible for sending signals between the brain, spinal cord, and other body parts. They are also known as neurons and are building units of the nervous system. (Also read What Is the Funny Bone Nerve?)
- Sex cells are not surrounded by any question about how many types of cells are there because, generally, they are of two types. Sperm is found in men, and ova are found in women. These cells are also known as gametes or reproductive cells, and when they fuse, a new organism is formed.
- Fat cells comprise adipose tissues. The fat consumed is stored in these cells in droplets and is used for energy. These cells are also known as adipocytes, and they can swell up if more fat is stored and vice versa. These cells perform various important functions, such as insulin sensitivity, controlling blood pressure, blood clotting, influencing sex hormones, and cell signaling.
- Stem cells are a unique type of cell. They possess the ability to develop into particular tissues or organs. They are used for repairing and replenishing damaged tissues quickly. Other uses of them are for generating cells after an organ transplant and treatment of bone diseases.
- Pancreatic cells produce hormones and secrete them directly into the blood. Hormones, insulin, and glucagon help control the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
- Muscle cells form into tissues to comprise your muscular system. These cells are of three types. Cardiac muscles (elastic) make up your heart and involuntary (not in your control) muscles. The skeletal muscles join bones with the skeleton to support your body and are voluntary muscles. Smooth muscles form the outer covering of internal and vital organs like kidneys, intestines, etc. (Also read What Is the Strongest Muscle in Your Body?)
- Blood cells are produced from the bone marrow (soft spongy tissues found inside the bones.
4. How many Blood Cells are there in the Human Body?
Blood cells are further classified into three types:
- Platelets are responsible for clotting blood.
- Red blood cells or RBCs transport oxygen
- White blood cells or WBCs are the soldiers of your body and help fight off any foreign viruses and bacteria.
Considering how many types of cells are there in your blood may lead to further classification of the cells mentioned before. (Also read Why are Arteries Red?)
5. How many Cells are in the Human Body at Birth?
Cell division begins as soon as fertilization occurs in the womb. From studying the growth of the fetus and forebrain, researchers concluded that a newborn baby could have 26,000,000,000 cells. According to a recent estimate given by researchers, the human body has 30 trillion cells by the time you reach adulthood. (Also read Number of Bones in Human Body Male vs Female)