Let’s Look at Its Composition First
The sun that gives life to every being and heats all the planets is nothing but a gigantic ball of gases. Mostly, these gases are helium and hydrogen, but other elements like iron, magnesium, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon are also present in small quantities.
Nuclear Fusion is happening Every Second
At the core of the Sun, hydrogen in millions of tons is burnt in nuclear fusion. The fusion converts hydrogen into helium while releasing huge amounts of energy during this process. This fusion is responsible for creating heat and the rays of light, which reach our planet Earth eventually.
The Hottest Thing on the Face of Earth
Many people consider lava to be the hottest thing present on Earth. It is the burning hot molten rock occasionally flowing through volcanoes. You will be surprised to know that even lava is nowhere close to how hot the Sun is. Lava can get really hot, so much so that its temperature can be even more than 2,200° F. Even then, its hotness is nothing compared to the heat of the Sun.
The Temperature of the Sun
The distance between the Earth and the Sun is around 93 million miles. The distance is just enough to let us all live comfortably throughout the year. At its photosphere, that is, the Sun’s surface can reach up to 10,000° F in temperature! Yes, you read that right. That makes the hottest lava flowing on Earth five times less hot than the Sun. Wait; the photosphere is not even the hottest portion of the sun!
Moving Away from the Photosphere
When you move away from its photosphere, either towards the outermost atmospheric layer or the inward, towards the core, the sun’s temperature rises even more. Corona is the outmost atmospheric layer which is visible as a halo of light during solar eclipses.
The temperature of the farthest point of corona from the Sun can raise to a whopping 3,600,000° F! And no, even the corona is not the hottest portion of our Sun.
It is the Core
For getting towards the hottest region of the Sun, you need to move towards its core. This is where the procedure of nuclear fusion takes place and leads to temperatures of nearly 27,000,000° F. This is obviously way hotter than our Earth’s lava in its hottest state. To be precise, the core temperature is over 12,000 times hotter than the Earth’s hottest lava. (See What Are The Benefits Of Sunlight To The Body?)
The Coldest Parts of the Sun
Now we know that the hottest region of the Sun is its core. The dark and cool parts of occasional magnetic disturbances flare up on the Sun’s photosphere. These regions are called ‘sunspots’ by scientists. They are usually cooler than their surrounding regions. “Cooler” as in… ONLY around 6,700° F. That is still way hotter than the hottest lava! So clearly, lava cannot even hold a candle to the heat of the Sun.